By Sharon Rodner Sznitman, Borje Olsson, Robin Room
Wish the directly dope on marijuana? This e-book addresses one uncomplicated query: how am i able to locate caliber details on hashish, amid the entire bias and opinion? This monograph is split into volumes. this primary quantity facilities on political, legislative, advertisement and social advancements when it comes to hashish. Its center viewers therefore includes policymakers, sociologists, historians, reporters and people focused on enforcement. the second one quantity is focused at medicines execs operating within the fields of therapy, prevention and healthcare.
Read Online or Download A Cannabis Reader: Global Issues and Local Experiences, Perspectives on Cannabis Controversies, Treatment and Regulation in Europe PDF
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Extra info for A Cannabis Reader: Global Issues and Local Experiences, Perspectives on Cannabis Controversies, Treatment and Regulation in Europe
In addition, the cannabis plant can be used as a source of hemp fibres, as well as hemp seeds and fatty oil. The flowering tops and leaves of the plant Cannabis sativa secrete a resin containing about 60 terpenophenolic compounds which are called cannabinoids, to distinguish the plant compounds from the endogenously occurring endocannabinoids found in most animals, especially humans. The highest amount of cannabinoids has been found in the flowering tops, followed by the leaves, whereas only small amounts are found in the stem and roots.
User reports are by nature subjective, and growshop information is compromised by the incentive to sell. Pro-cannabis lobbying information is skewed towards innocuous and euphoric effects or favourable comparisons with alcohol. Prohibitionist literature emphasises the risks of cannabis smoking without placing sufficient emphasis on the sought-after effects of cannabis. Fortunately, help is at hand for those first approaching the subject. A number of initiatives have sought to provide information that is simultaneously accurate and 27 The pharmacology of cannabis Table 1: Summary of the effects of cannabinoids System Effect Central nervous system (CNS) Psychological effects Euphoria, dysphoria, anxiety, depersonalisation, aggravation of psychotic states Effects on perception Heightened sensory perception, distortion of space and time sense, misperceptions, hallucinations Sedative effects Generalised CNS depression, drowsiness, sleep, additive effect with other CNS depressants Effects on cognition and psychomotor Fragmentation of thoughts, mental clouding, memory performance impairment, global impairment of performance Effects on motor function Increased motor activity followed by inertia and uncoordination, ataxia, dysarthria, tremulousness, weakness and muscle twitching Analgesic effects Similar in efficacy to codeine Antiemetic effects In acute doses, effect reversed with larger doses or chronic use, increased appetite Tolerance To most behavioural and somatic effects, including the ‘high’ with chronic use Dependence, abstinence syndrome Rarely observed but has been produced experimentally following prolonged intoxication or administration of antagonists Cardiorespiratory system Heart rate Increased with acute dosage, decreased with chronic use Peripheral circulation Vasodilation, conjuctival redness and postural hypotension Cardiac output Increased output and myocardial oxygen demand Cerebral blood flow Increased in the short term and decreased with chronic use Breathing Small doses stimulate, larger doses depress coughing but tolerance develops Airways obstruction Due to chronic smoking Eye Decreased intraocular pressure Immune system Impaired activity of bactericidal macrophages in lung and spleen Reproductive system Decreased sperm count and sperm motility in males, suppression of ovulation, complex effects on prolactin secretion, increased obstetric risks Source: R.
Some 1 % by weight of the plant is composed of a mixture of 20 flavonoid compounds which are well known as 32 Chapter 3 antioxidants and which also scavenge damaging free radicals. Whether the quantities which survive the pyrolysis reactions involved in smoking cannabis are sufficient for activity is unknown (Musty, 2004). Pharmacokinetics and metabolism The dose of THC needed to produce effects in humans ranges from 2 to 22 mg (Adams and Martin, 1996). It is estimated that only 1 % of the THC content of a ‘joint’ is found in the brain after smoking; hence, only 2–44 µg of THC enters the brain in humans.